Charles Robert Darwin, FRS (12 February 1809-19 April 1882) is best known for his evolutionary theory. He proposed that all life was descended over time from a common progenitor. A process he called natural selection fueled by struggle for existence played the role similar to artificial selection in selective breeding.
In the 1859 book On the Origin of Species, Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence.
Darwin’s theory of evolutionary descent with modification has now become the dominant explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he published The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals which established how his theory could be applied directly to humans.